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Chun-Jung Chang, Chiou-Feng Lin, Bing-Chang Chen, Pei-Yun Lin, Chia-Ling Chen
Chronic respiratory diseases (CRDs), including pulmonary fibrosis, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD), lung cancer, and asthma, are significant global health problems due to their prevalence and rising incidence. The roles of protein tyrosine kinases (PTKs) and protein tyrosine phosphatases (PTPs) in controlling tyrosine phosphorylation of targeting proteins modulate multiple physiological cellular responses and contribute to the pathogenesis of CRDs. Src homology-2 domain-containing PTP2 (SHP2) plays a pivotal role in modulating downstream growth factor receptor signaling and cytoplasmic PTKs, including MAPK/ERK, PI3K/AKT, and JAK/STAT pathways, to regulate cell survival and proliferation. In addition, SHP2 mutation and activation are commonly implicated in tumorigenesis. However, little is known about SHP2 in chronic pulmonary inflammation and fibrosis. This review discusses the potential involvement of SHP2 deregulation in chronic pulmonary inflammation and fibrosis, as well as the therapeutic effects of targeting SHP2 in CRDs.
Hiu Yan Lam, Vinay Tergaonkar, Alan Prem Kumar, Kwang Seok Ahn
Mast cells (MCs) are innate immune cells that widely distribute throughout all tissues and express a variety of cell surface receptors. Upon activation, MCs can rapidly release a diverse array of preformed mediators residing within their secretory granules and newly synthesize a broad spectrum of inflammatory and immunomodulatory mediators. These unique features of MCs enable them to act as sentinels in response to rapid changes within their microenvironment. There is increasing evidence now that MCs play prominent roles in other pathophysiological processes besides allergic inflammation. In this review, we highlight the recent findings on the emerging roles of MCs in the pathogenesis of coronavirus disease-2019 (COVID-19) and discuss the potential of MCs as novel therapeutic targets for COVID-19 and other non-allergic inflammatory diseases.
SPECIAL ISSUE CALL FOR PAPERS
GUEST EDITORS: Nikos Karamanos (Univ. of Patras), Sylvie Ricard-Blum (Univ. of Lyon), Dimitris Kletsas (NCSR Demokritos, Athens)
Deadline extension for manuscript submission 28 February 2022
Expected issue publication will be March 2022
GUEST EDITOR: Mandeep Kaur (University of the Witwatersrand, South Africa)
Manuscripts should be submitted by 28 February 2022
Expected issue publication will be May 2022
NEW VIRTUAL ISSUES
Elena Rosini, Loredano Pollegioni
A number of approaches have been developed over the years to manage cancer, such as chemotherapy using low-molecular-mass molecules and radiotherapy. Here, enzymes can also find useful applications. Among them, oxidases have attracted attention because of their ability to produce reactive oxygen species (ROS, especially hydrogen peroxide) in tumors and potentially modulate the production of this cytotoxic compound when enzymes active on substrates present in low amounts are used, such as the D-amino acid oxidase and D-amino acid couple system. These treatments have been also developed for additional cancer treatment approaches, such as phototherapy, nutrient starvation, and metal-induced hydroxyl radical production. In addition, to improve tumor specificity and decrease undesired side effects, oxidases have been targeted by means of nanotechnologies and protein engineering (i.e., by designing chimeric proteins able to accumulate in the tumor). The most recent advances obtained by using six different oxidases (i.e., the FAD-containing enzymes glucose oxidase, D- and L-amino acid oxidases, cholesterol oxidase and xanthine oxidase, and the copper-containing amine oxidase) have been reported. Anticancer therapy based on oxidase-based ROS production has now reached maturity and can be applied in the clinic.
Biotechnology and Applied Biochemistry
Ming Gao, Yuansong Sun, Qi Wang, Shuaiting Ma, Xinwei Guo, Lingling Zhou, Yeng Chen, Kasi Marimuthu, Subash C.B. Gopinath
Nanomaterial on the sensing area elevates the biomolecular immobilization by its right orientation with a proper alignment, and zeolite is one of the suitable materials. In this research, the zeolite nanoparticles were synthesized using rice hush ash as the basic source and the prepared zeolite by the addition of sodium silicate was utilized to attach antibody as a probe on a gap-fingered dielectrode surface to identify the colon cancer biomarker, “colon cancer-secreted protein-2” (CCSP-2). Field Emission Scanning Electron Microscopy and Field Emission Transmission Electron Microscopy images confirmed the size of the nanoparticle to be ∼15 nm and the occurrence of silica and alumina. Zeolite was modified on the electrode surface through the amine linker, and then anti-CCSP-2 was attached by an aldehyde linker. On this surface, CCSP-2 was detected and attained the detection limit to be 3 nM on the linear regression curve with 3–5 nM of CCSP-2. Estimated by the determination coefficient of y = 2.3952x – 4.4869 and R2 = 9041 with 3δ (n = 3). In addition, control proteins did not produce the notable current response representing the specific sensing of CCSP-2. This research is suitable to identify CCSP-2 at a lower level in the bloodstream under the physiological condition of a colon cancer patient.
Davide Nardone, Angelo Ciaramella, Mariangela Cerreta, Salvatore Pulcrano, Gian C. Bellenchi, Linda Leone, Giuseppe Manco, Ferdinando Febbraio
Surface enhanced laser desorption/ionization-time of flight (SELDI-TOF) mass spectrometry is a variant of the matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization-time of flight (MALDI-TOF) mass spectrometry. It is used in many cases especially for the analysis of protein profiling and for preliminary screening of biomarkers in complex samples. Unfortunately, these analyses are time consuming and protein identification is generally strictly limited. SELDI-TOF analysis of mass spectra (SELYMATRA) is a web application (WA) developed to reduce these limitations by (i) automating the identification processes and (ii) introducing the possibility to predict proteins in complex mixtures from cells and tissues. The WA architectural pattern is the model-view-controller, commonly used in software development. The WA compares the mass value between two mass spectra (sample vs. control) to extract differences, and, according to the set parameters, it queries a local database to predict most likely proteins based on their masses and different expression amplification. The WA was validated in a cellular model overexpressing a tagged NURR1 receptor, being able to recognize the tagged protein in the profiling of transformed cells. A help page, including a description of parameters for WA use, is available on the website.
Biochemistry and Molecular Biology Education
Anika Tajrian Khan, Golam Mahmud Chowdhury, Juwairiyah Hafsah, Md Maruf, Md Riyad Hossen Raihan, Md Talha Chowdhury, Nafisa Nawal, Nishat Tasnim, Pranto Saha, Prottoy Roy, Raya Tabassum, Souvick Patrick Rodrigues, Walid Hasan, Zarin Tasnim Samanta, Suprio Kamal, Md Shahoriar Nazir, Md Ackas Ali, Mohammad A. Halim
The main protease of SARS-CoV-2 is a promising drug target due to its functional role as a catalytic dyad in mediating proteolysis during the viral life cycle. In this study, experimentally proven 14 HIV protease peptides were screened against the main protease of SARS-CoV-2. Fourteen middle and high school “student researchers” were trained on relevant computational tools, provided with necessary biological and chemical background and scientific article writing. They performed the primary screening via molecular docking and the best performing complexes were subjected to molecular dynamics simulations. Molecular docking revealed that HIP82 and HIP1079 can bind with the catalytic residues, however after molecular dynamics simulation only HIP1079 retained its interaction with the catalytic sites. The student researchers were also trained to write scientific article and were involved with drafting of the manuscript. This project provided the student researchers an insight into multi-disciplinary research in biology and chemistry, inspired them about practical approaches of computational chemistry in solving a real-world problem like a global pandemic. This project also serves as an example to introduce scientific inquiry, research methodology, critical thinking, scientific writing, and communication for high school students.
Jinjie Liu, Ron Cook, Linda Danhof, David Lopatto, Jon R. Stoltzfus, Christoph Benning
A complex research project was translated into a Course-based Undergraduate Research Experience (CURE), which was implemented in sections of an introductory Cell and Molecular Biology laboratory course. The research laboratory generated an engineered plant line producing a growth-inhibiting, lipid-derived plant hormone and mutagenized this line. Students in the CURE cultured the mutagenized plant population and selected and characterized suppressor mutants. They learned to observe phenotypes related to the biosynthesis and perception of the plant hormone and explored the genetic and biochemical basis of these phenotypes. As the students studied the relevant genetic, molecular and biochemical concepts during this CURE, they were able to translate this knowledge into practice and develop scientific arguments. This CURE was a successful collaboration between the teaching lab and the research lab. It benefited both parties as the students had a real-life, deep learning experience in scientific methodology, while the research lab gathered data and materials for further studies.
Did you know? Wiley and Jisc just signed an agreement that allows UK authors to publish Open Access in the IUBMB Journals at no cost to them.
Thanks to a partnership our publisher Wiley has signed with Jisc, certain UK institutions now have full access to journals published by Wiley, including the IUBMB Journals. Further, the partnership enables authors at participating UK institutions to publish open access at no cost to them in the IUBMB Journals. Payment of the associated Article Publication Charges (APC) would be covered via the partnership, and authors will not need to cover the APCs from their own pockets.
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Molecular Aspects of Medicine
Volume 81, October 2021, 100996
Neutrophils at the crossroads of acute viral infections and severity
by Surender Rawat, Sudhanshu Vrati, Arup Banerjee